How can you tell if you have diabetes? Most early symptoms are from higher-than-normal levels of glucose, a kind of sugar, in your blood.
The warning signs can be so mild that you don't notice them. That's especially true of type 2 diabetes. Some people don't find out they have it until they get problems from long-term damage caused by the disease.
With type 1 diabetes, the symptoms usually happen quickly, in a matter of days or a few weeks. They're much more severe, too.
Both types of diabetes have some of the same telltale warning signs.
Hunger and fatigue. Your body converts the food you eat into glucose that your cells use for energy. But your cells need insulin to bring the glucose in.
If your body doesn't make enough or any insulin, or if your cells resist the insulin your body makes, the glucose can't get into them and you have no energy. This can make you more hungry and tired than usual.
Peeing more often and being thirstier. The average person usually has to pee between four and seven times in 24 hours, but people with diabetes may go a lot more.
Why? Normally your body reabsorbs glucose as it passes through your kidneys. But when diabetes pushes your blood sugar up, your body may not be able to bring it all back in. It will try to get rid of the extra by making more urine, and that takes fluids.
You'll have to go more often. You might pee out more, too. Because you're peeing so much, you can get very thirsty. When you drink more, you'll also pee more.
Dry mouth and itchy skin. Because your body is using fluids to make pee, there's less moisture for other things. You could get dehydrated, and your mouth may feel dry. Dry skin can make you itchy.
Blurred vision. Changing fluid levels in your body could make the lenses in your eyes swell up. They change shape and lose their ability to focus.
The combination of type 2 diabetes and coronary artery diseasecan be more deadly than previously thought, according to research from scientists in the United States.
2 diabetes admitted into the hospitalfor congestive heart failure face a one in four chance of dying over the next 18 months.
The results paint a much grimmer picture of the outcome for diabetes patients with severe heart disease than was previously known.
“Type 2 diabetes accompanied by an acute coronary syndrome needs much more attention, especially in order to prevent yet another major cardiac event,” said principal investigator Dr. William B. White, a professor in the Pat and Jim Calhoun Cardiology Centre at the university.
He pointed out that patients with type 2 diabetes have two to three times the heart disease risk of the general population. This is partly because obesity and other illnesses such as hypertension and elevated cholesterol contribute to both diseases, but there are concerns that some of the medications that help control blood sugar may also damage the heart.
Even insulin, a hormone that healthy people make naturally but some patients with type 2 diabetes need as a medication, can contribute to heart disease. Indeed, because of the diabetes heart disease link, all new diabetes drugs are now required by the US Food and Drug Administration to undergo formal testing for their impact on heart and .
What Is Coronary Heart Disease
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a disease in which a waxy substance called plaque builds up inside the coronary arteries. These arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to your heart muscle.
When plaque builds up in the arteries,. The buildup of Plaque occurs over many years.
Over time, plaque can harden or rupture (break open). Hardened plaque narrows the coronary arteries and reduces the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the heart.
If the plaque ruptures, a blood clot can form on its surface. A large blood clot can mostly or completely block blood flow through a coronary artery. Over time, ruptured plaque also hardens and narrows the coronary arteries.
If the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your heart muscle is reduced or blocked, angina or a heart attack can occur.
Angina is chest pain or discomfort. It may feel like pressure or squeezing in your chest. The pain also can occur in your shoulders, arms, neck, jaw, or back. Angina pain may even feel like indigestion.
A heart attack occurs if the flow of oxygen-rich blood to a section of heart muscle is cut off. If blood flow isn’t restored quickly, the section of heart muscle begins to die. Without quick treatment, a heart attack can lead to serious health problems or death.
Over time, CHD can weaken the heart muscle and lead to heart failure and arrhythmias. Heart failure is a condition in which your heart can't pump enough blood to meet your body’s needs. Arrhythmias are problems with the rate or rhythm of the heartbeat.
Lifestyle changes, medicines, and medical procedures can help prevent or treat coronary heart disease. These treatments may reduce the risk of related health problems.
What is Type 1 Diabetes?
The more severe form of diabetes is type 1, or insulin-dependent diabetes. It’s sometimes called “juvenile” diabetes, because type 1 diabetes usually develops in children and teenagers, though it can develop at any age.
Immune System Attacks
With type 1 diabetes, the body’s immune system attacks part of its own pancreas. Scientists are not sure why. But the immune system mistakenly sees the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas as foreign, and destroys them. This attack is known as "autoimmune" disease.
These cells – called “islets” (pronounced EYE-lets) – are the ones that sense glucose in the blood and, in response, produce the necessary amount of insulin to normalize blood sugars.
Insulin serves as a “key” to open your cells, to allow the glucose to enter -- and allow you to use the glucose for energy.
Without insulin, there is no “key.” So, the sugar stays -- and builds up-- in the blood. The result: the body’s cells starve from the lack of glucose.
And, if left untreated, the high level of “blood sugar” can damage eyes, kidneys, nerves, and the heart, and can also lead to coma and death.
What Is Type 2 Diabetes?
Type 2 diabetes is a condition in which:
Your pancreas does not make enough insulin.
The insulin that your body makes does not work as well as it should.
Your liver also makes too much sugar. When sugar (glucose) builds up in the blood, over time it can lead to serious medical problems.
One of the goals of treating type 2 diabetes is to lower blood sugar, but you should also be careful of it going too low.
Lowering and controlling blood sugar may help prevent or delay complications of type 2 diabetes, such as:
Type 3 diabetes is a title that has been proposed for Alzheimer's disease which results from resistance to insulin in the brain.